Human Resource Management

A Guide to Credit for Prior Learning

Typical Learning Experiences of Students Earning Lower-Level Credit:

  • Work in private, public or non-profit organizations, usually with at least one to two years of human resource management experience.
  • Attend one or more training sessions in areas such as career development, cultural diversity, employee relations, interviewing and selection, the legal environment and performance appraisals.

Typical Learning Experiences of Students Earning Upper-Level Credit:

  • Work in private, public or non-profit organizations, usually with at least three years of human resource management experience and generally with a year or more in a direct supervisory or managerial role.
  • Attend one or more training sessions in the areas listed above, and in other HRM areas such as career management, EAP, EEO, HRIS and TQM.
  • Applicants for upper-level credit in this area often seek credit in more narrowly defined areas. Common topics for which upper-level credit is awarded are compensation and benefits, labor relations and collective bargaining, managing cultural diversity, and training and development.

Discussion Topics:

If students are familiar with some (but not necessarily all) of the following topics, they may be eligible for lower-level credit in the area of human resource management. If students are familiar with advanced questions, they may be eligible for upper-level credit. If knowledge of some of the topics is substantial, the students may consider requesting additional credit in more narrowly defined areas.

Group 1. "Managing the Internal and External Environments”

Strategic Human Resource Management

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Describe the components of the strategic management process.
  • Discuss the role of the HRM function in strategy formulation.
  • Describe the differences between strategy formulation and strategy implementation.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Describe the linkages between HRM and strategy formulation.
  • Discuss the more popular typologies of generic strategies and the various HRM practices associated with each.
  • Describe the different HRM issues and practices associated with various directional strategies.

Global Issues in Human Resource Management

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Identify the recent changes that have caused companies to expand into international markets.
  • Discuss the factors that most strongly influence HRM in international markets.
  • List the different categories of international employees.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Identify the four levels of global participation and the HRM issues faced within each level.
  • Discuss the way companies attempt to select, train, compensate and reintegrate expatriate managers.

The Legal Environment and Equal Employment Opportunity

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • List the major federal laws that require equal employment opportunity and the protections provided by each of these laws.
  • Identify behavior that constitutes sexual harassment and list things that an organization can do to eliminate or minimize it.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Identify the three theories of discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and apply these theories to different discrimination situations.
  • Discuss the legal issues involved with preferential treatment programs.

Employee Relations

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Discuss the type of policies and practices employers may develop regarding employee safety, employee health, and employee security and working conditions.
  • Identify the major provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970) and the rights of the employees that are guaranteed by this act.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Discuss safety awareness programs focused on either job-specific hazards or on specific injuries.
  • Specify the major components of employee assistance programs and employee wellness programs, as well as the steps involved in creating and maintaining such programs.
  • Describe the design of working conditions conducive to maintaining individuals’ economic and psychological well being.

Group 2. "Assessing Work and Work Outcomes”

The Analysis and Design of Work

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Explain a workflow process, identifying the output, activities and input in the production of a product or service.
  • Identify the tasks performed and the skills required in a given job.
  • Explain the different approaches to job design.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Describe the importance of job analysis in strategic and human resource management.
  • Choose the right job-analysis technique for a variety of human resource activities.
  • Explain the trade-offs among the various approaches to designing jobs.

Performance Management

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Identify the major determinants of individual performance.
  • Discuss the general purposes of performance management.
  • Identify criteria for effective performance-management systems.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Describe the different approaches to performance management.
  • Choose the most effective approach to performance measurement for a given situation.
  • Distinguish types of rating errors and explain how to minimize each in a performance.

Work Attitudes and Job Withdrawal

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Explain what job satisfaction is and how it develops.
  • Explain what job withdrawal is and how it relates to job satisfaction.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Describe various ways to measure job satisfaction and the benefits of conducting work attitude surveys.
  • Describe the various manifestations of job withdrawal, such as behavior changes, physical withdrawal, psychological withdrawal and employee health problems.
  • Describe where job dissatisfaction and withdrawal originate and potential ways to reduce them.

Group 3. "Acquiring Human Resources”

Human Resource Planning

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Define human resource planning and labor demand.
  • Describe the effectiveness of a human resource planning program.
  • Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):
  • Discuss how to align a company’s strategic direction with its human resource planning.
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various ways of eliminating a labor surplus or avoiding a labor shortage.

Job Choice and Recruitment of Human Resources

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Describe the features of jobs and organizations that most people view as critical when looking for work.
  • List the various sources from which job applicants can be drawn.
  • Explain the role of the recruiter in the recruitment process.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Describe the methods people use to process information about jobs and organizations and how these methods are affected by individual differences.
  • Describe the various recruitment policies organizations adopt to make job vacancies more attractive.

Personnel Selection and Placement

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • List the common methods used in selecting human resources.
  • What is the government’s role in personnel selection decisions, particularly in the areas of constitutional law, federal law, executive orders and judicial precedent.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Describe the degree to which each of the common methods (i.e. interviews, personality inventories, honesty tests and drug tests) used in selecting human resources meets the demands of reliability, validity and legality.

Group 4. "Developing Human Resources”

Training

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Discuss how training can help companies gain a competitive advantage.
  • Describe the role of the manager in identifying training needs, training goals, and in supporting the application of training on the job.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Evaluate the necessary conditions to ensure employees’ readiness for training.
  • Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of presentation, hands-on and group training methods.

Employee Development

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Discuss the work roles that employees, managers and executives need to assume for companies to gain a competitive advantage.
  • Explain the benefits of employee development.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • For any given job, make suggestions regarding how job experiences can be used for skill development.
  • Discuss how psychological assessment can be used for employee development.
  • Propose activities that companies should engage in to effectively manage a diverse workforce.

Career Management

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Identify the reasons why companies need to help employees manage their careers.
  • Explain the issues employees experience in their career development and what companies can do to help them deal with these issues.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Describe an effective socialization program for new employees.
  • Discuss policies designed to help employees deal with work and family conflict.
  • Discuss layoff and outplacement strategies that reduce the negative effects on displaced workers and remaining workers.

Group 5. "Compensating Human Resources”

Pay Structure Designs

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Describe the theory of equity in compensation.
  • Describe the major administrative tools used to manage employee compensation.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Describe job evaluation and how it fits into employee compensation in management.
  • Explain the importance of process issues such as communication in compensation management.

Recognizing Individual Contributions with Pay

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Describe the fundamental pay programs for recognizing individual employees’ contributions to the organization’s success.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of the pay programs.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • List the major factors to consider in matching the pay strategy to the organization’s strategy.
  • Describe how U.S. pay practices compare with those of other countries.

Employee Benefits

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Explain the major provisions of employee benefit programs.
  • Discuss the growth in benefit costs and the underlying reasons for that growth.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Describe the effects of benefits management on cost and workforce quality.
  • Describe the regulatory constraints that effect the way employee benefits are designed and administered.

Group 6. "Special Topics in Human Resource Management”

Collective Bargaining and Labor Relations

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Describe what is meant by collective bargaining and labor relations.
  • Identify the labor relation’s goals of management, labor unions and society.
  • Describe the major labor-management interactions: organizing, contract negotiations and contract administration.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Explain the legal environment’s impact on labor relations.
  • Describe the new, less adversarial approaches to labor-management relations.

Human Resource Information Systems

Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • How does computer technology help a company gain a competitive advantage?
  • Describe the types of computer applications used to manage human resources.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Describe the security and privacy policy for databases, software and computer systems.
  • Discuss how human resource applications are useful for staffing, human resource planning, training and career development, and compensation and benefits.

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