Training and Development

A Guide to Credit for Prior Learning

Typical Learning Experiences of Students Earning Lower-Level Credit:

  • Work as a trainer or as part of a training team.
  • Attend workshops and training sessions in areas such as designing training programs, motivating employee learning, learning in adulthood, presentation skills, facilitating group discussion and developing instructional materials.
  • Work with a mentor in a training and development setting.

Typical Learning Experiences of Students Earning Upper-Level Credit:

  • Work in a training or HRD department in which they engaged in a wide range of training activities.
  • Attend several training sessions in the areas listed above and/or have participated in professional conferences in the field (often, but certainly not always, candidates for upper-level credit will have made conference or workshop presentations.)
  • Read books and articles in newsletters and periodicals about training, development, HRD and/or organizational development.
  • Applicants for upper-level credit in this area often seek credit in more narrowly defined areas. Areas in which upper-level credit is often awarded are adult learning theory, instructional design and development, technology in training, program evaluation and program administration.

Discussion Topics:

If students are familiar with some (but not necessarily all) of the following topics, they may be eligible for lower-level credit in the area of training and development. If students are familiar with advanced questions, they may be eligible for upper-level credit. If knowledge of some of the topics is substantial, the students may consider requesting additional credit in more narrowly defined areas.

Adult Learning and Development

(Includes characteristics of adult learners; motivation; adult learning and development theories; impact of individual and social factors such as class, gender, culture, etc.)
Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • State some characteristics of adult learners.
  • What are some of the main reasons adults engage in learning?
  • How does aging affect adult learning?

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Select a learning theory and discuss its implications for designing, developing, and/or conducting training.
  • Discuss the impact of gender differences in learning and learning situations.


(Includes context analysis, needs analysis, setting goals and objectives, determining content, planning evaluation.)
Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • What types of training design experience have you had?
  • What is a training need? How have you been involved in identifying training needs?
  • What is the difference between goals and objectives?
  • List several factors that form part of the context of training?

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Describe an appropriate process for creating a design for learning.
  • What are the difficulties in conducting an effective needs analysis?


(Includes identifying learning resources and techniques and preparing learning materials.)
Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • How have you been involved in developing training?
  • List a number of techniques and resources that can be used for learning in a training program.
  • State some reasons for providing handouts to people engaged in training?
  • What are characteristics of a good instructional manual?

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • What are some guidelines for choosing particular methods, techniques, and materials for a training activity?
  • Consider some technical instructional technology (video, computer-assisted instruction, computer-mediated conferencing, etc.) and discuss 1) the process of developing an instructional package, and 2) the criteria for evaluating its quality.


(Includes listening, presentation, group facilitation, use of materials and media, self-directed learning.)
Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • What types of experiences have you had delivering training?
  • Select the method of delivery you prefer or use most often, and state several important principles for its use.
  • Define group facilitation. For what purposes would you use facilitation in training?

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • How would you address expected differences in student learning styles through your use of techniques and materials?
  • How do trainers’ listening skills influence instructional delivery?
  • How would you incorporate self-instruction into a training plan?
  • What are considerations for effective use of computer technology in training?

Logistics and Environment

(Includes registration, scheduling, room or technology set-up, environmental factors.)
Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Discuss your experiences in creating and operating registration processes and procedures.
  • How do various environmental factors, such as air circulation, temperature, lighting, and surrounding activity, affect the learning situation? How do you plan for these variables?
  • What elements are important when delivering training through technology?
  • What considerations go into determining the time frame for a training program (half days vs. all day; consecutive days vs. weekly meetings; use of weekend programs, multiple vs. single-session videoconference)?
  • Describe different room set-ups and discuss how you would decide what set-ups to use?


(Includes formative and summative.)
Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • Define formative and summative evaluation.
  • Describe the differences between participant evaluation and program evaluation.

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • Discuss some major factors involved in developing a program evaluation plan and how those factors influence the planning.
  • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of two evaluation designs, e.g., experimental, quasi-experimental, survey, ethnographic, etc.


(Includes staffing, scheduling, marketing, budgeting, cost/benefit analysis, legal and ethical issues.)
Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • How do you create a budget to keep the price of training affordable?
  • What costs should be factored into the calculation of the total cost of a program?
  • What are the major criteria you would use for selecting trainers?
  • Identify two or three ethical dilemmas a trainer/developer might face.
  • What are effective promotional strategies you have used for your programs?

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • How can any given training or set of learning activities be supported on a cost/benefit basis?
  • Identify an ethical dilemma (perhaps one you have faced) and discuss the issues and how you might resolve them.
  • Given a particular case, develop and justify a marketing plan.

Perspectives on Training

(Includes history, relationship to human resource management, relationship to human resource development.)
Facts, definitions, concepts (lower-level):

  • What are the significant elements in the history of the training and development field?

Relationships, knowledge of discipline, methodologies (upper-level):

  • How has the field of training and development responded to changes in management, such as scientific management, strategic management, TQM, reengineering, etc.?
  • What is the relationship of training to human management?
  • How has computer and telecommunications technology impacted training and development?

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